Writing and marketing The New Heat Transfer
In 1973, I decided to write a book about the new engineering, but I was reluctant to use the title The New Engineering because I was not widely regarded as an expert in any field. My published works consisted of two articles on heat transfer, both of which had been poorly received, and were almost ten years old. In the interim, the many papers I had submitted for presentation and/or publication had all been rejected. It seemed more than likely that my claim to the new engineering would seem so grandiose that I would be deemed a crackpot, and the new engineering would not be seriously considered.
For that reason, I decided to first write a book entitled The New Heat Transfer. Heat transfer is widely regarded as an art rather than a science, and therefore a new heat transfer would seem less grandiose than a new engineering. Also, I could better demonstrate the application of the new engineering to heat transfer because of my twenty years of practical experience in high-tech heat transfer in the fields of nuclear reactors, space power, aircraft gas turbines, and fossil fueled boilers.
I had little confidence that it would be possible to sell a book on the new heat transfer, particularly a book written by someone as unknown to the public as myself. I was reluctant to write the book if no one was going to buy it, so I decided to test the market before writing the book.
I intended to accomplish this by placing ads in engineering journals and trade magazines. The ads would state that I was planning to write the book, and as each chapter was completed, it could be purchased for $1.95.
My intent was to decide whether or not to write the book based on the response to the ads. If there were only three or four responses to the ads, I would not write the book, and would simply return the money to those who had ordered Chapter 1, along with an explanatory note and an apology. If there were considerably more than three or four responses, I would write and publish the book.
In March of 1973, I sent copy for the first ad to ASME’s Journal of Heat Transfer, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer (IJHMT), and AIChE’s Chemical Engineering Progress (CEP).
The first ad appeared on page 56 of the July, 1973 issue of CEP, and on pages vi and vii of the August, 1973 issue of IJHMT. The ad stated that heat transfer coefficients are abandoned in the new heat transfer, and briefly described why they should be abandoned. The ad also stated that the book was being in written in chapters, chapters could be purchased for $1.95 each, and persons who purchased all the chapters would receive a complimentary bound copy of the book when it became available.
The ASME Journal of Heat Transfer would not accept ads for The New Heat Transfer
In 1973, the ASME Heat Transfer Division Executive Committee (ASMEHTDEC) would not allow ads for The New Heat Transfer to appear in the Journal of Heat Transfer.
Copy for the ad had been submitted to the ASME in March, but in November, the ASMEHTDEC still would not allows ads for The New Heat Transfer to appear in the Journal of Heat Transfer. A letter from Professor Sparrow dated November 20, 1973 stated:
In general, the Executive Committee felt that there is a real possibility that an advertisement for your book can ultimately be published in the Journal of Heat Transfer, pending certain matters of clarification and revision.
Also note in the letter that the ASMEHTDEC required that several hoops be jumped through, and that they be allowed to revise my ads prior to publication.
My tongue in cheek reply dated November 30, 1973 stated that I would jump through the required hoops. I would also allow them to revise my ads provided each ad they edited state that it had been edited by the ASMEHTDEC, and also cite a reference where the unedited ad could be found.
I kept negotiating with the ASMEHTDEC in the hope that it would begin to allow ads for The New Heat Transfer to appear in the Journal of Heat Transfer. The ASMEHTDEC at first allowed only ads that contained no technical content. However, it soon relented, and for many years ending in 1993, ads with technical content appeared on the back cover of every issue of the Journal of Heat Transfer. I placed the ads in the Journal of Heat Transfer not because they were cost effective, but because they belonged there.
In 1993, it was decided that the ASME Journal of Heat Transfer would no longer accept ads from anyone. (Since my ads were essentially the only commercial ads that appeared in the JournaI of Heat Transfer, I felt that this was a clever way of stopping my ads with de facto bias rather than obvious bias.)
Response to the first ad for The New Heat Transfer
I was astonished by the first order for Chapter 1. Over the years, I had met such stubborn resistance from professors who controlled the engineering media that I expected to receive no orders from professors in general.
Amazingly, the first order for Chapter 1 was from a professor—Professor John A. Clark, Chairman of the Mechanical Engineering Department of the University of Michigan!! Note the friendly and encouraging tone of Professor Clark’s hand written order.
(Professor Clark’s order initiated our correspondence. See my first letter to Professor Clark dated August 6, 1973, and Professor Clark's first reply dated August 10, 1973. Note that my letter of August 6 states that Chapter 1 will not be completed for four more weeks.)
The response to the first ad was greater than I had expected. (By the middle of September, I had received 34 orders for Chapter 1. They are still in my files.)
I decided to write The New Heat Transfer.
The advertising plan: 48 pages of ads in IJHMT, and an indefinite number in CEP
Because the response to the first ad was so favorable, I decided to advertise the book extensively. Toward that end, I contracted with IJHMT for two pages of advertising in each of 12 issues beginning December, 1973. (See my letter to PCI dated August 21, 1973, and PCI’s acknowledgement dated August 23, 1973. PCI was the advertising agency for IJHMT.)
In my letter to PCI dated November 6, 1973, I contracted for two pages of advertising in another 12 issues, making a total of 48 pages of advertising in 1974 and 1975 issues of IJHMT. Note that the copy for an ad that was to appear on the first 2 pages of the March, 1974 issue states:
This is the first in a series of ads describing The New Heat Transfer. The ads will appear on the first two pages of this Journal throughout 1974 and into 1975. The New Heat Transfer may be obtained ($19.95) from: THE VENTUNO PRESS, Box 40321, Cincinnati, Ohio 45240.
I also sent ad copy to CEP for the inside back cover of the October, 1973 issue, the second in a series of an indefinite number of ads to run in CEP. (The same ad also appeared in the February 18, 1974 issue of Chemical Engineering.)
The editors of the IJHMT disliked my first ad. The IJHMT refunded my money, and refused to honor our contract!
On December 11, 1973, Professor J. P. Hartnett, University of Illinois, informed me by telephone that the entire editorial board of IJHMT (most of whom are prestigious professors at world class universities) unanimously agreed that the proposed series of ads for The New Heat Transfer were “unprofessional” and should be discontinued. (See my letter to Professor Spalding, Imperial College of Science & Technology, dated December 11, 1973.) Professor Hartnett also informed me that the money I had paid for the ad in the August, 1973 issue of IJHMT would be refunded!!
Apparently, the editors of IJHMT did not see my ad until after it was published. I had submitted the copy for the ad to their agent, PCI, in the normal manner. PCI had correctly noted that there was nothing objectionable in the ad, and therefore they had not bothered to have it approved by the editors.
IJHMT refused to honor our contract for additional pages of advertising. And refunded my money for the first ad!
However, Professor Spalding's letter of 12/17/73 indicated that IJHMT would accept my ads provided they contained no technical content. My letter to Professor Spalding dated 12/26/73 stated that I wished to place such an ad in 6 consecutive issues of IJHMT.
(As described below, in 1986, the Editorial Board of IJHMT approved a series of ads that contained technical content. For several years, an ad for The New Heat Transfer appeared in every issue of IJHMT. Then in 1990, the Editorial Board decided to “not accept any additional advertising for The New Heat Transfer”.)
Writing The New Heat Transfer
I wrote Volume 1 of The New Heat Transfer in 1973. (The book is in 3 volumes published in 1974, 1975, and 1976). I wrote the book on state of the art equipment—an IBM Selectric typewriter. It was cutting edge technology in that it was the first typewriter that had erasing capability—it had an erasing tape that would lift characters from the typewritten page, leaving no trace except for an indentation in the paper.)
When I started writing Chapter 1, I was afraid that what I had to say would not fill a book of reasonable size. For that reason, the lines in Chapter 1 are double-spaced. After completing Chapter 1, I was less apprehensive about filling a book, so I changed the line spacing in Chapter 2 to 1˝ spaces. After completing Chapter 2, I was not at all concerned about filling a book, and the lines in the remaining chapters are single-spaced.
The schedule I set and maintained was to complete a chapter every two weeks, including having the chapter printed, and mailing copies to subscribers. If a chapter was completed in less than two weeks, as they generally were, I did not start the next chapter until the two week period was over.
One day while I was writing Chapter 2 or 3, a reader called to ask how many chapters The New Heat Transfer would contain. Since I had not made an outline of the book, I had no idea how many chapters the book would contain. But I was embarrassed to admit my error of omission, and so I made an instant decision—I told the caller there would be nine chapters. And that is why Volume 1 contains nine chapters.
What The New Heat Transfer is really about
The real subject of The New Heat Transfer is not heat transfer. The real subject is the new engineering. Heat transfer is merely the branch of engineering I used to demonstrate the methodology of the new engineering. Note the following on page 5-5 in Volume 1 of the first edition:
And this is what The New Heat Transfer is really about—it is about the invention of concepts which effectively deal with nonlinear behavior, and it illustrates the application of such a concept to the science of heat transfer—but it could just as well have been The New Stress/Strain—or The New Electrical Engineering—or The New Fluid Flow.
Note on the page facing the title page that The New Heat Transfer is the first book in the New Engineering Series. In 1974, it was my intent that books on most branches of engineering would be included in the New Engineering Series. Since the new heat transfer has not yet been widely accepted, no other engineering branches have yet been added to the New Engineering Series.
McGraw-Hill and The New Heat Transfer
After I had written the first two chapters, I began to think seriously about having the book published. I decided that it would be best to have the book published by McGraw-Hill. I also decided that if McGraw-Hill did not want to publish it, I would not offer it to a second rate publisher. I would publish it myself.
My letter to McGraw-Hill Book Company dated 10/3/73 offered the publishing rights to The New Heat Transfer. Enclosed with the letter were the Table of Contents, the Preface, and Chapters 1 and 2. Note that the letter closes with the following:
I have not offered The New Heat Transfer to any other publisher, nor do I intend to do so. McGraw-Hill has the reputation of being the best publishing house, and only the best will suffice for The New Heat Transfer. If you will not publish it, then I will simply publish it myself.
I received a negative reply in what I judged to be a form letter dated 10/12/73, and signed by Mr. Tyler G. Hicks, Editor-in-Chief, Engineering, Science, and Management.
When I started writing The New Heat Transfer, the company name I used was Stability Consultants, an engineering company I had unsuccessfully tried to start. (Note that Professor Clark’s order cited above is addressed to Stability Consultants.) When I decided to publish the book myself, I abandoned the name “Stability Consultants” in favor of a more appropriate name for a publishing company. I chose the name “Ventuno Press” late in 1973. (It is a very small company. It publishes only material that I write, and I am the only employee.)
Ventuno is twenty-one in Italian. I chose the name Ventuno Press because I felt that the new engineering would gain worldwide acceptance by the beginning of the twenty-first century.
In the last quarter of the twentieth century, worldwide communication was rapid, and national and international engineering conferences were popular and well attended. Therefore twenty-five years was a reasonable length of time for worldwide acceptance of the new engineering—reasonable if one makes the naďve assumption that engineering universities and societies and media have a scientific mindset—ie have a lack of bias against new ideas, and a genuine and selfless interest in progress.
Through what I regard as no fault of mine, worldwide acceptance did not occur by the beginning of the twenty-first century. Perhaps it will occur by the end of the twenty-first century.
Why my signature is on the cover of The New Heat Transfer
When all nine chapters of The New Heat Transfer were completed, I contacted Josten’s (the company that prints high school year books) and contracted with them to print 5000 copies of the book with a hard cover of my design. As I had promised, complimentary copies were sent to those who had purchased all nine chapters.
I was singularly responsible for the content and design of the book. I typed the masters for the book; I prepared and solved all the problems; I drew every sketch; I prepared every chart; I designed the cover. In short, I did everything except print the book. Because I had done all the work in the preparation and design of the manuscript and cover, I considered the book a work of art as well as a work of science. And because artists generally sign their work, I thought it appropriate that my signature appear on the cover of The New Heat Transfer.
Mir Publishers (Moscow) published a Russian edition of The New Heat Transfer
The “Mir” Publishers, Moscow are interested in translating and publishing in Russian of “The New Heat Transfer, eugene f. adiutori”, 1974.
The book is expected to be published in 1976 in 5,000 copies at the retail price of 1.70 roubles approximately.
Herewith we are enclosing in triplicate the draft agreement for acquisition of rights to translate and publish in Russian the above book.
In case you will find the terms and conditions of the draft agreement acceptable, please sign it and return all the copies to us.
Yu. GRADOV, Director, Export & Import Department
It is probably not necessary to say that I was elated!!! Just 14 months after The New Heat Transfer was published, the Russians recognized its importance, and wanted to buy the rights to translate and publish a Russian edition!!
In 1977, Mir published 5000 copies of The New Heat Transfer in soft cover. The price was one ruble, seventy kopeks. (See Russian cover and copyright page.)
(I had heard that the Russians did not pay royalties. The check from Mir publishers dated May 19, 1977 demonstrated that they did in fact pay royalties.)
The manuscript in the Russian edition has a much better appearance than that in the American edition. In particular, the figures and charts are much more professional. Four persons who contributed to the Russian edition are listed at the end of the book.
The foreword to the Russian edition (according to the Berlitz translation) gives an accurate and concise summary of the new heat transfer, then states the following:
Executed by the author the broad study of assets and liabilities of giving up the employment of coefficients of heat exchange and heat conductivity in the analysis of various processes of heat transfer is of undoubted interest. . . The Adiutory’s book contains data which allow to appreciate the advantages of giving up this coefficient, and in this way the book contributes to clearing up the matter whether “the game is worth the candle”.
This book is . . . the exposition and the defence of the new approach to the analysis of processes of heat transfer which is suggested by the author. The author employs in this book the elementary simple apparatus and the very polemical style of exposition which can irritate a reader. We recommend not to make hasty conclusions.
A review of this book has been published in the “New Books Abroad” (Novye knigi za rubezhom”) magazine, Series B.8, page 23, 1976,
Professor I. Aladjev
Doctor of Technical Science
Professor A. Leontjev
Doctor of Technical Science
It seemed to me that the existence of the Russian edition would make it difficult for the leaders of the heat transfer world to publicly ignore me, and would make it impossible for them to publicly or even privately portray me as a crackpot.
I was wrong.
In the 1980’s, I met Professor Leontjev at an international heat transfer conference. I asked him whether he or Professor Aladjev was mainly responsible for the Russian edition, and he replied that it was Professor Aladjev. (I was dismayed to notice that, in the paper he presented at the conference, Professor Leontjev used heat transfer coefficients.)
In June of 2004, I met Professor Ventsislav Zimparov at an international heat transfer conference in Slovenia. He told me that, many years before, he had read the Russian edition of The New Heat Transfer! He is the first and only person I have met who read the Russian edition, and I was very happy to meet him. He took a photo of the two of us, and promised to send me a copy.
I did not hear from him again until April of 2005, at which time he was working with Professor Bejan at Duke University. I had been invited to give a dinner talk at North Carolina State University, and the dinner talk was scheduled to be held a few weeks after I heard from Professor Zimparov. Since North Carolina State University is very near to Duke, I invited him to be my guest at the dinner. He said he would like to come, but he did not.
Advertising The New Heat Transfer in the late 1970’s
George Bernard Shaw observed that:
The spontaneous recognition of really original work begins with a mere handful of people, and propagates itself so slowly that it has become a commonplace to say that genius, demanding bread, is given a stone until after its possessor’s death.
The cure for this is sedulous advertisement.
In the late 1970’s (and again in the late 1980’s), I tried the recommended cure—I placed many different ads for The New Heat Transfer in the following journals and magazines:
· Chemical Engineering Progress
· ASME Journal of Heat Transfer
· ASME Journal of Engineering for Power
· Mechanical Engineering
· Nuclear News
· Chemical Engineering
· International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer
The ads from the 1970's were primarily summaries of chapters in the book. Many of the ads included a separate postcard for ordering the book. All of the ads stated that the book would be sent on approval, and the customer would be billed only if the book was not returned in 30 days.
For a time, McGraw-Hill and Ventuno Press jointly marketed The New Heat Transfer. McGraw-Hill placed their ads in Chemical Engineering, and received orders for the book. (I disliked the McGraw-Hill ads, but did not have editorial approval.) The orders were turned over to and filled by Ventuno Press. The proceeds were split 50-50. (See an example of a McGraw-Hill ad.)
I had thought and hoped that, if I could sell 1000 copies of The New Heat Transfer, the book would begin to sell itself, and worldwide acceptance would eventually result. I was wrong. The ads were successful in selling several thousand books, but the book never began to sell itself, and no appreciable acceptance resulted.
Sedulous advertisement may be a cure for the slower-than-death “recognition of really original work”, but the cure did not work for The New Heat Transfer.
In 1980, I stopped advertising the book.
In 1986, I decided to again advertise The New Heat Transfer, but to change the nature of the ads. Ads from the 1970's were mostly summaries of chapters in the book. Ads from the 1980's were mostly short papers on specific subjects addressed in the book, and were intended to demonstrate the rationale and effectiveness of the new heat transfer.
Many of the ads were condensations of papers I had written in the 1960’s and 1970’s, and had tried unsuccessfully to present at engineering conferences, or to arrange for publication in engineering journals. For example, there were ads with such titles as:
· Who really originated the h concept?
· What’s wrong with h?
· Is nucleate boiling really described by q = aDT3?
· Does a straight line on log log paper really describe transition boiling data?
Ads with technical content appeared in the following engineering journals and magazines:
· International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer
· ASME Journal of Heat Transfer
· International Journal of Engineering Science
· ASME Gas Turbine and Power
· Mechanical Engineering
· Chemical Engineering Progress
· Numerical Heat Transfer
· Heat Transfer Engineering
In all, there were approximately 100 pages of ads for The New Heat Transfer, most of which appeared in the International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, and in the ASME Journal of Heat Transfer.
As noted above, in the 1970’s, the IJHMT would accept ads for The New Heat Transfer only if they were devoid of technical content. As in the 1970’s, I still wanted to place ads with technical content in the IJHMT. In my letter of 6/7/86 to the advertising agent for IJHMT, I enclosed a proposed ad with technical content. The cover letter stated:
When you submit the copy for editorial board approval, please indicate to them that I requested that the ad be submitted to them prior to publication.
This time the editorial board graciously approved of my ads with technical content. Beginning with the October, 1986 issue, a coordinated series of ads with technical content appeared in every issue of the IJHMT, and it was my plan to continue the series indefinitely.
The series of ads continued until I received a letter from Professors Hartnett and Minkowycz, editors of the IJHMT, dated 11/19/90. The letter stated:
In particular, the Board of Editors (of the IJHMT) is on record as rejecting for publication any advertisement containing technical material which would be rejected for publication when subjected to the normal review procedure. Accordingly, the Editorial Board by unanimous vote has recommended to Pergamon Press that they not accept any additional advertising for The New Heat Transfer.
(Note that the editors unanimously rejected additional ads—ie ads they had not yet seen—because if the unseen ads were “subjected to the normal review procedure”, the editors were unanimously agreed that the unseen ads “would be rejected for publication”. In other words, each editor had the amazing ability to make a review decision on material he had never seen! I believe that is the classic definition of bias.)
Clarence Darrow, the well known and often maligned lawyer, once noted: There is always one person to state the case for freedom. That’s all we need—one! Darrow was mistaken. There is not always one. Sometimes the vote is unanimous.)
The ad series in the ASME Journal of Heat Transfer
The ad series that appeared in the IJHMT also appeared in the Journal of Heat Transfer, beginning with the May, 1986 issue. The ads appeared on the outside of the back cover of every issue, and it was my intent to continue the ads indefinitely.
One day in 1993, I received a canceled invoice for an upcoming ad in the Journal of Heat Transfer. On the invoice was a notice that the Editorial Board had decided to discontinue all advertising in the Journal of Heat Transfer. (Since my ads were essentially the only ads that appeared there, the decision to discontinue all advertising was a clever way to reject my ads with de facto bias instead of obvious bias.)
The notice gave the name and telephone number of a person who could provide more information. I called that person, but he did not take my call, nor did he return it. I was so annoyed, I threw the invoice away. (That is why there is no link to the canceled invoice.) As noted in my letter dated 10/1/93 to Professor Heggs , the last ad in the series appeared in the August, 1993 issue.
Years later, I noticed an ad in the Journal of Heat Transfer, indicating that the Editorial Board had reversed itself, and was again accepting ads. And I again placed an ad in the Journal of Heat Transfer, but this time, the ad was for The New Engineering.
The second edition of The New Heat Transfer
In 1989, I wrote, and Ventuno Press published, a second edition of The New Heat Transfer. I sent review copies to more than 300 engineering journals and magazines, but again, few reviews were published.
The second edition was not well received.
In 1990, my sister Josie DeSantis owned a sign company, and she employed “Doc” DeStefano, a competent cartoonist. I showed him a simple sketch of the cartoon I wanted, and it became a cartoon ad that appeared in the December, 1990 issue of Mechanical Engineering.
The cartoon ad conveyed my message—the useful life of heat transfer coefficient was over, and it should be buried.
I thought the cartoon was well done, but it had no impact that I know of.
Ad offering free copies of the second edition of The New Heat Transfer
In 1993, I decided that, since I could not sell the book, I would give it away. Toward that end, I placed ads that offered free copies of the book to anyone who remitted the required postage, $1.91 within the USA, $3.22 outside the USA. I also sent letters to editors of more than 200 engineering journals and magazines requesting that they mention my offer in their periodicals, and offering to send them sample copies of the book. My letter to Editor Czakainski dated 10/20/93 is typical.
I no longer have a record of how many requests were received, but it was a considerable number.